CESKY KRUMLOV: Bohemia Print

Alternate names: Český Krumlov [Cz], Böhmisch Krumau [Ger], Ceske Krumlov, Krumau, Krumlov, Krummau, Böhmisch Krummau, Krummau an der Moldau. 48°49' N, 14°19' E, in S Bohemia, 13 miles SSW of České Budějovice (Budweis). In Sudetenland before WWII. Jewish population: 165 (in 1900), 111 (in 1930). Town history on Wikipedia. [September 2011]

REGION: The town's historical center is on the UNESCO List of Historical and Cultural Heritage including a castle, the Latran neighborhood, St. Vitus church, medieval burghers' houses, a museum, the Egon Schiele Centre and numerous galleries. Located on the Vltava river valley below Klet Mountain (elevation: 1083 m). Tourist destinations along the river valley include Rozmberk Castle, the monasteries at Vyssi Brod and Zlata Koruna, the ruins of Divci Kamen Castle, the remains of a Celtic fortified settlement in Trisov, the birthplace of Adalbert Stifter in Horni Plana, and the museum of the horse-drawn railway in Bujanov. Lipno reservoir and Lipno lake attract cyclists and mountain bikers. This small medieval town, almost unchanged since the 18th century, is one of the most picturesque in Europe. Krumlov Castle is the second largest fortification in the Czech Republic after Prague Castle and certainly one of the oldest. The most ancient part is the round tower dating from the second half of the 13th century. The whole complex was reconstructed in the 16th century in the Renaissance style. [February 2009]

TOWN: map and photos: The unique medieval town center with large castle is protected by the UNESCO. Located on the slopes above the meanders of the Vltava river about 25 km south České Budějovice , originally only an Early-Gothic castle on the rock spit on the left bank of the river existed in the first half of the 13th century near the trade route to Linz (Austria). Latran was the name of the settlement that soon grew around the castle. A new town (present Old Town) was founded on the opposite bank in the second half of the 13th century. At the beginning of the 14th century the castle and the town became property of the Rozmberks and an administrative center of the region. The town grew quickly under the 300 plus years of Rozmberk ownership culminating in the late 16th century Renaissance character of the town preserved today. In 1611, the town was partially destroyed and stagnated. The castle of the same name towers on the rock above the meander of the Vltava River. Its present appearance is the last reconstruction in Baroque and Rococo styles between 1744 and 1767. Latran, east of the castle, was enlarged in the mid-14th century when New Town was founded on the bank of the Vltava river.
The town walls are gone with only the round bastion with the pyramidal roof from 1506 and the Budejovicka Brana (Budejovice Gate), built at the end of the 16th century in the style of the Italian Renaissance preserved. The Old Town founded in an elevated position is enclosed on three sides by the bight of the Vltava river and only accessible from the east across the deep moat. Originally Gothic houses, mostly rebuilt into the Renaissance style, are preserved in this part of the town. The underground graphite mine can be visited. The wooden roofed bridge spans the Vltava river on the southern outskirts of the town in the direction of the town Větřní . The regional museum with exhibitions of the town and history of the surroundings is located in the former seminary and old Jesuit pharmacy. Avery well-known nature theatre with the revolving auditorium is found in the chateau park. [February 2009] Nearby:

monastery Zlatá Koruna

village Kájov

small town Chvalšiny

castle town Rožmberk

ruins of the Dívčí Kámen castle

protected area Blanský Les

CEMETERY:

website in Czech with photo: "The cemetery is located 900 meters NE of the square in Hřbitovní ulici, adjacent to the town cemetery. Established in 1891, the unlandmarked cemetery is surrounded by a nearly 3 m high brick wall with entrance gates forged with Star of David motif. The about 100 tombstones visible date from the establishment of the cemetery in the first half of the 20th century. Iin 1937 Rabbi Prof.. Dr. Leopold Hirsch was buried there. The latest tombstone is from 1993. The 1890 ceremonial hall preserves the reading desk.Currently ongoing maintenance should continue in the future as well as complete reconstruction of the ceremonial hall, damaged sections of wall and reestablishment of toppled tombstones from the 19th century and early 20th century." [September 2011]

We visited the Jewish cemetery  in August 1999. According to the website information, the last burial took place in 1967 but we found a gravestone marked 1993. Vegetation is a problem but just before we visited a big clean up had been done including removal of bushes and trees and burning off vegetation over the graves. Many stones have fallen over, but no vandalism is evident. We wrote down some names of the stones, but we didn't have time to write down all of them. The synagogue still stands. The inside can be glimpsed through broken windows, run down, but not beyond repair. Neither the tourist information center in town nor the bookstore owner has any information on the old Jewish community. Source: Jon Arno Lawson and Amy Freedman [1999]

US Commission No. CZCE000031

Alternate name: Krumau, Krummau in German. Also used cemetery at Rozmberk Nad Vltavou before 1891. Cesky Krumlov is located in Bohemia, Cesky Krumlov at 48º09' 14º09', 20 km SW of Ceske Budejovice. Cemetery: 900 m ENE of Main Square, in Hrbitovni ulice, close to the municipal cemetery. Present town population is 5,000-25,000 with probably no Jews.

  • Town: Mestsky Urad, 381 01 Cesky Krumlov; tel. 0337/3711 and Mayor: Engineer Jan Vondrous, home: namesti Svornosti 5, 381 01 Cesky Krumlov.
  • Local: Engineer arch. Oldrich Kodeda, Kajovska 65, 381 01 Cesky Krumlov; tel. office: 0337/2449 and Engineer Michal Sirovy, Kajovska 65, 381 01 Cesky Krumlov; tel. office: 0337/4904 and Engineer Zdenek Stepan, Havrani 517, 381 01 Cesky Krumlov; tel. office: 0337/3711.
  • Regional: Okresni Urad, Referat Kultury, (head: PhDr. Jiri Kunft) 381 01 Cesky Krumlov; tel. 0337/3114 or 2640 and Pamatkovy ustav jiznich Cech (Director: Engineer Milan Tvrzicky) namesti Premysla Otakara 34, 370 21 Ceske Budejovice; tel. 038/237-92 and Zidovska Nabozenska Obec v Praze, (Ms. Jana Wolfova) Maislova 18, 110 01 Praha 1; tel. 02/231-69-25.
  • Interested: Oksresni Muzeum, Horni 152, 381 01 Cesky Krumlov; tel. 0337/2049 or 2249 and Statni oblastni archiv (head: Jiri Zaloha) 381 01 Cesky Krumlov; tel. 0337/3486 and Statni Zidovske Muzeum, Jachymova 3, 110 01 Praha 1; tel. 02/231-06-34 or 231-07-85 and Okresni archiv, (head: Ms. Maskova) 381 01 Cesky Krumlov; tel. 0337/2069 and Jan Kocnar, Parkan 113, 381 01 Cesky Krumlov.
  • Key holder: custodian of cemeteries, Mr. Zimmerhanzl or Mr. Beran; tel. 0337/2524.

Earliest known Jewish community was mid-19th century. 1930 Jewish population was 111 Jews in Cesky Krumlov and 56 in nearby Vetrni (German: Wettern). Jewish families banished in 1494 with modern congregation constituted in mid-19th century. Native town of Israeli composer and violist Baruch Kobias (1895-1964). The probably landmarked Jewish cemetery originated in 1891. Spiro family members, owners of large paper mills in nearby Vetrni, are buried here. The last known probably Progressive/Reform Jewish burial was in 1945 (1967 an urn put here). The suburban flat land at the crown of a hill, separate but near cemeteries, has inscriptions in Hebrew on gate or wall, inscriptions on pre-burial house (German), and no sign, but Jewish symbols on gate or wall. Reached by turning directly off a public road, access is open with permission via continuous masonry wall and locking gate. The pre- and post-WWII size of cemetery is approximately 0.2 ha.

20-100 stones, most in original location, date from 1891-20th century. The marble and granite markers are flat shaped stones, finely smoothed and inscribed stones, flat stones with carved relief decoration or multi-stone monuments. Some have metal fences around graves. The cemetery contains no known mass graves or special sections. Within the limits of the site is a pre-burial house. Praha Jewish community owns the property used for Jewish cemetery and storage (Ceremonial hall has hay and straw storage). Adjacent properties are commercial or industrial and municipal cemetery. Rarely, private visitors stop. The cemetery probably was never vandalized. Local/municipal authorities and Jewish groups within country did work occasionally before 1988. There is no maintenance. Slight threat: vegetation.

Ph.Dr. Jan Podlesak, Bezdrevska 1021/8, 370 11 Ceske Budejovice; tel. office: 038/371-41 and Jiri Fiedler, z"l, Brdickova 1916, 155 00 Praha 5; tel. 02/55-33-40 completed survey on 8 Aug. 1992 using archives of Ph.Dr. J. Podlesak and Jan Herman: Jewish Cemeteries. (1980), Jahrbuch fuer die israelische Cultusgemeinden Boehmens (1893-4), Die Juden und Judengemeinden Boehmens (1934) and letters of Mestsky Urad Cesky Krumlov (1992) and regional connoisseur J. Kocnar (1983) and of local parish priest Milon Zemen, deceased (1983-1985). Other documentation exists but was not used because it was not available. The site was not visited.

Last Updated on Wednesday, 02 January 2013 11:15