Alternate names: Rijeka [Croa], Fiume [Ital], Sankt Veit am Flaum [Ger], Rěka [Slov], Rieka. 45°21' N, 14°25' E, Principal seaport of Croatia, on the Adriatic Sea. Croatia's third-largest city. 1900 Jewish population: about 2000. Encyclopedia of Jewish Life (2001), p. 1083: "Rijeka". [February 2009]
51000 Rijeka, PP 65
President : Vlado Kon
Exhibition [February 2009]
Alternate name: Fiume in Italian. A Jewish presence in Rijeka dates from the 15th century with a Jewish community formally established in
1781.The first synagogue founded was in 1832 in the home of Mozes Halevi in Calle del Tempio. This major seaport on the Istrian peninsula
attracted Jews from all over the Hapsburg Empire. When Istria became part of Italy after the defeat of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in
World War I, the city attracted many Italian Jews. As many as 2,500 Jews lived in Rijeka between the WWI and WWII. In WWII,
the Fascist Ustasa Regime established about thirty concentration camps to isolate and eliminate "non-Croatian" elements of the population
and political opponents. Jews, other non-Catholic minorities (Serbs, Gypsies, and Muslims.) Inmates were murdered at the camps or deported to
Auschwitz-Birkenau. Holocaust memorials exist. The Jewish Community in Zagreb has an extensive Holocaust Documentation Center to publish
materials and maintain a database on Holocaust topics, including victims and survivors. See: Svob, Melita. Jews in Croatia: Holocaust Victims
and Survivors. Zagreb: Jewish Community of Zagreb, 2000.
The main Neologue community and a smaller Orthodox congregation mainly comprised of immigrants from Poland, Russia, and Galicia made up
the Jewish Community. The ornate, domed Neolog synagogue designed by Lipot Baumhorn and built in 1902-3 was destroyed in 1944. The
modernist Orthodox synagogue built in 1928 [1930?] and used by the 70-member Rijeka Jewish community is one of only three synagogues in
Croatia (Dubrovnik and Split) not damaged, destroyed, or converted for other use during or after World War II. [Musafia, Josip. "The Orthodox
Synagogue in Rijeka," Voice, No. 2, Autumn 1998, Zagreb, 38-39.] Designed by engineers G. Angyal and P. Fabbro, the asymmetrical,
unadorned three-part façade with a brick tower and two entrances of different heights has a vestibule and a sanctuary divided into three sections.
The Ark is made of Carrara marble from Ancona, Italy. Landmarked as a cultural monument by the Rijeka Commission of the National Bureau
for the Protection of Cultural and Natural Heritage. [February 2009]
Sephardic Orthodox Synagogue on Ivana Filipovica St. was built in 1928 and is still in use in 1992. Ashkenazi Synagogue, built in 1862 by
Lipot Baumhorn was destroyed in 1944. [Land Registry: Folder No: 3438 Plot No.: 1041/9] Jewish Community, established in 18th century still
exists. Jewish Population: 1781-25; 1910-1696; 1938-1783; 1941-750; 1947-200; 1994-99. See: Gruber, Ruth Ellen. Jewish Heritage Travel:
A Guide to East-Central Europe. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 1992. (page 244) 
OLD JEWISH CEMETERY: Founded in 1840 or earlier outside the city walls, cemetery was active until 1874. [February 2009]
KOZALA MUNICIPAL CEMETERY, Jewish Section: In 1875, a Jewish section was established with today a ceremonial hall,
about 550 monuments, and an a historic landmark. About twenty tombstones from the old Jewish cemetery were moved here and
incorporated into a commemorative wall. In 1981, the Jewish community erected a Holocaust memorial designed by architect Zdenko Sila.
In white Istrian stone, the memorial bears the names of the 278 Holocaust victims from Rijeka. [February 2009]
Cemetery: Address: Kozala. The Ceremonial Hall and 550 monuments exist on property nationalized in 1976.[Land Registry:
Folder No: 727 Plot No.: 324] Source: Srdjan Matic, MD, 40 West 95th Street, Apt. 1-B, New York, NY 10025. (212) 222-7783.
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