NOVA USHYTSYA [Novaya Ushitsa, Nei-Ushitz, Oyshitz , Uszyca , Ushitsa, Ushitsa Novaia, Uszyca Nowa, Nowa Uszyca, Nova Usycja, Nova-Oshitza, Letnevsky : Print

Alternate names: Nova Ushytsya [Ukr], Novaya Ushitsa [Rus], Nei-Ushitz [Yid], Oyshitz [Yid], Uszyca [Pol], Letnevsky [Rus, until 1829], Ushitsa, Ushitsa Novaia, Uszyca Nowa, Nowa Uszyca, Nova Usycja, Nova-Oshitza. 48°50' N, 27°17' E, 35 miles ENE of Kamyanets-Podilskyy, 42 miles SSE of Khmelnytskyy (Proskurov). Jewish population: 2,213 (in 1897), 1,547 (in 1939).

Russian source with photos: "New Ushitza, one of hundreds of Jewish settlements in Podolia, in the past called Litnevtsy. Judging by the title, the story of his roots in the history of Lithuania (in Hebrew - Lita) when it is occupied by the space between the Baltic and Black Seas (14th century). First name Litnevtsy mentioned in 1439 in a royal charter to transfer possession of the village nobleman Senka. only land route linking the cities Litnevtsy Kamenetz-Podolsk in Mogilev-Podolsky, in those days was impassable most of the year. Remote from the political center and the main water ways of the Dniester and Bug selishte represented Jews relatively calm lagoon in a stormy sea of anti-Semitism. Surrounding dense forests helped hide Jewish population from the dangers of the type of bloody campaigns Bohdan Khmelnytsky, Fyodor Bolotskogo. In the mid-18th century in Litnevtsah already a Jewish community organization with established Jewish artisans craft and trade. Therefore, and as a result of well-paid Jewish petitions, King of the Commonwealth in August Third Litnevtsam bestow the right to self-government and the status of town. In 1793, already under the protection of Russia joins the town Litnevtsy Ushitsky county. According to the 1803 population in 1658 Litnevtsah Jews and 780 Christians. Ushitza township was located on the bank of the river where it flows Kalus in the Dniester. Its historical prominence begins with the 12th century, and the name is borrowed from the Talmud in a similar city name Usha. His archaeological traces and next to them acting Kibbutz Usha located in the Upper Galilee - hilly northern part of Israel. Usha City remained in Jewish memory being in it Sanhedrin - the Jewish Supreme Court.Immediately after the fall of Jerusalem, the Sanhedrin was in Yavna, and then was transferred to the city of Usha, who became the center of religious and spiritual life of the Jews. In memory of Usha named city Poland and Ukraine: Ushachi Ushpol, railway station Usha - not far from Minsk. Ushitza was not alone with their Jewish roots on the banks of the Dniester, in the past Tiras - on behalf of a seventh son Yefeta, the grandson of Noah. Jampol, Mogilev, Magpies, Rubber (correctly Rezena) Dubossari, Karagash - Jewish towns from the time of Greek and Khazar. In 1826, Russian authorities have transferred the administration of the county in Ushitskogo Litnevtsy. Ushitza gets old name Ushitza and Litnevtsy - New Ushitza. That sounded like a royal decree: "1826 November 13. Commanded: to inconvenience existence Ushitza Distric town, on the edge povet standing, translate povet city of Ushitza breech place Litnevtsy - 1829 August 12. " Ushichane passed from mouth to mouth, from generation to generation such legend. One Russian Czar and his retinue rode their Jewish ownership in Podolia. Seeing scattering houses, clinging to the hill above the river, the king asked: "What is it? Ushitza?? "" No, Your Majesty, it Litnevtsy. "The king could not admit that mistakes and uttered: "From this day, it will be called the New selishte Ushitza and Ushitza - Old Ushitza." architecture of the town, come down to us, the people of the 20th century, resembles the Jewish towns in Germany and Poland 10 times - century. Small shopping area, surrounded by a dense one and two-story houses. Gradually rising along the right bank of the river road from Mogilev-Podolsk poured into this area Bazaar and there forked, one turns to the ninety degree steeply towards Minkovtsy; second, skirting the same area, fell steeply down, crossed the rapid Kalus and ran into the city Bar. In 1838, during the so-called Nikolayev conscription, New Ushitza gained prominence in the Jewish world and in Russia on the sensational murder case of two Jews who denounced the authorities for hiding the number of souls "census tales." Ushitskoe case dragged on until 1840, 80 people were prosecuted and sentenced shpitsrutenami, thirty of them did not survive and died on the spot execution. Remaining sent to penal servitude and exile to Siberia. Not without abuse: police chief Novo Ushitskogo Sofronovich County, Solicitor Oslikovsky, staff-doctor Afanasiev for violent illegal actions in the conduct of the investigation have been deprived of the nobility and reduced to the ranks. During the investigation, arrested Rabbi Michel of Dunaevcy in suspicion that he was aware of decision to kill informers. During transport, the Phase Jews recaptured it from the convoy and transported abroad. in 1841 "to elevate the well-being of cities in Podolia, granted privileges philistines and generally people of the free states." New Ushitza begins to develop more intensively. Construction of roads and bridges across rivers and Kalus Smotrych (Contractors - Jews Zikland and Goldenberg) post office (superintendent Ayzengart Jew Aaron) .... In 1863, in New Ushitza 1136 Jews lived in 76 separate houses, a synagogue, Beit Midrash, sauna. In 1889 in the book "Podolsk province" New Ushitza characterized as a settlement that "no commercial value has, fairs in the city is, markets are set every two weeks."According to the 1897 census, the county lived in Novoushitskom 25426 Jews, including in New Ushitza - 2213 worked 105 Jewish artisan workshops, 140 tailors, carpenters and metalworkers 20. In 1912, the Jewish population of New Ushitza grown to 2,819 people. The city had two Jewish library, a Jewish bookstore, five Jewish pharmacies, private Jewish general education school, vocational school, a public shelter at the synagogue, twenty five grocery stores, visiting six yards, manufactories fifteen stores, six stores selling flour and cereals, five haberdashery, leather six workshops, five butchers .... Bazaars going on Thursdays, fairs - from 3 to 6 August. might seem strange to count only the Jewish population. In the book "The whole Southwest region" in 1913 in the "New Ushitza" provides the following data: Orthodox - 4588, Catholics - 681 Jews - in 2747 and explained that the data include suburbs residents Filyanovki. Where Filyanovka there and Cascade, which due to the proximity does not indicate. How many Jews in New Ushitza itself? True New Ushitza - is the trade area and the houses around it, this street and Postal Veterinary and countless lanes 2-3 at home around them. Orthodox population not living among the Jews as among Christians and Jews. Russian period in New Ushitza crawled up the road in Dunaevcy, especially in the Soviet era. There also settles a mixed population, mainly of Russian immigrants, Ukrainians and Jews only occasionally. shtetl life in the late nineteenth early twentieth century seething political passions, among which the Zionist movement occupies a place of honor. However, the greatest influence enjoyed "General Jewish Union" - the Social Democratic Party called the "Bund", negating Zionism and emigration. Sometimes Bund reconciled with the Zionists. In 1913, they jointly organized protests about anti-Jewish Bayliss process. During World War I, the Russian command, suspecting the Jews of spying for Germany, relocates them from the frontline villages and towns in New Ushitza.The Jewish population has more than tripled. briefly New Ushitza was occupied by German troops. Occupation remained in Jewish memory novoushichan event, not who brought harm to the population. After nearly twenty-five years this short time experiment relations between Jews and Germans played a fatal role. During the 1917 revolution in power passed to the majority of the population, ie the Jews. In troubled times of Soviet power ushichan many Jews fought in the Red Army, in particular, in the brigade Kotovskogo. Jewish cavalry headed by the Communist M. Daychmanom strikes fear on the prowl around New Ushitza gang Petlurites. In 1920, after the expulsion of the Army in New Petlyury Ushitza established Soviet power.The head of the Revolutionary Committee and then the Board of workers and peasants elected M. Daychman. New Ushitza receives financial support from the Jewish community emigrated to America ushichan. Open a vocational school, the Jewish seven-year school in the city appears electricity. soon replaced hope comes disappointment. Fighting Nepmen closing of synagogues and Jewish schools, forced collectivization led to a decrease in the Jewish population. If in 1923 lived in New Ushitza 1991 Jews, in 1939 - only i1547. During World War II, most of the Jews of New Ushitza not evacuated and, except for units were destroyed by German occupiers at the very active support of the non-Jewish population, ie, Ukrainians and Russian. Mass grave tortured Alaska ushichan Jews, more than 3,000 people, is located next to New Ushitza trichomes in the tract. In the first years after the war, the authorities never allowed surviving relatives even set tombstone. On the blood-soaked graves grazed cattle. At the end of the twentieth century in New Ushitza lived just two Jews." Author: Anatoly Shtarkman Detailed description on the photo. photohunt.org.ua / Novaja_Ushica.html

Cemetery:?

MASS GRAVE ?