You are here: Home Eastern Europe Armenia BRATSLAV: [BROSLEV ,BRACŁAW ,BRATZLAV, BRATSLAW, BRAZLAW, BRACLAV] Vinnytsia Oblast
Coat of arms of Bratslav Alternate names: Bratslav [Rus Брацлав, Ukr Брацлав ], Broslev and בראָסלעו  [Yid], Bracław [Pol], Bratzlav, Bratslaw, Brazlaw, Braclav. 48°50' N, 28°57' E, 35 miles SE of Vinnytsya, 10 miles SE of Nemirov..1900 Jewish population: 3,920.. Bratslav is famous in Judaism as the place where Rabbi Nachman lived and taught between 1802 and 1810. Rabbi Nachman was the founder of one of the major branches of Hasidism, Breslover Hasidism, and an author of Jewish mystical works.[Wikipedia]

Photos [January 2016]

Source with photos: "Bratslav (otherwise Braslaw ancient name Braslavl, Heb. Breslov), a settlement Nemirovsky region Vinnitsa region, up to 1923 - the county town of Podolia. In 1491 - 1517 years. Bratslav and Vinnitsa headman was Prince Constantine of Ostrog, the hetman of Lithuania, the famous organizer of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania defense against Tatar invasions. Probably by age management Bratslavshchina Prince Constantine of Ostrog and The settlement of Jews here. Among the first residents of the city, apparently, were the Jews of Volhynia, who arrived in the region together with the prince. As elsewhere, the core of the emerging communities here could become a major tenant families (including items of income, at the mercy of the commitments they were customs duties). One of the first documentary evidence of Jewish settlement in these lands at the beginning of the XVI century. serves as a bill of sale from November 1506 to the estate Koteneva acquired Ostrozhsky Jew Michel Shimonkovichem "Mytnikov Bratslav and Vinnitsa." Perhaps by the middle of the XVI century. In Bratslav formed Jewish community. In 1616 according lustration royal estates in Bratslav (more precisely, in part, belonged to the king) was "500 policemen houses, Jewish 18, Gentry 40, the Russian clergy 6. Apparently, even with the first outbreaks of the Cossack rebel war when Bratslavshchina in May 1648 appeared Maxim Kryvonis headed Cossack troops, commoners joined the rebels Breslov Cossacks. Gentry and Jews, knowing the mood of Bratslav Ukrainian middle class fled, most likely in other fortified cities, without waiting for the slaughter. Jewish chroniclers, describing the destruction of communities and neighboring towns Nemirova Tulchin bypass Bratslav silence (quite possible, however, that the number of Jews in the royal town on the eve of the Khmelnytsky was a minor). Since the mid 1730s. for half a century was Prince elder Breslov Calixtus Poninsky not to hinder the settlement of Jews in the city. In 1765, there were 35 in Bratslav Jewish homes, the census recorded 101 Jews lived in them. A congregation of his rabbi. For Breslov Jewish community had a total of 195 people assigned who lived in the city and in the surrounding villages. next census in 1776 recorded a Bratslav only 32 Jewish houses in which lived 83 Jew. Among the causes of decline of the Jewish population - Haidamak pogroms in 1768, "a plague" in the second half of 1772, from which many people died, and a fire in 1773, which resulted in Bratslav burned more than 40 homes. According topographic description Bratslavskogo county, made ​​at the turn of XVIII - XIX centuries., the city's population were: nobility having estates - 9 people (2 yard), the Orthodox clergy - 17 people (2 yard), the Catholic clergy - 2 people (1 yard), commoners - 493 people (89 households), and finally, the Jews - 352 people (79 households). economic life of Breslov picked up somewhat in the early XX century. in connection with the general industrial boom in the South West region.Jews, who formed in this period more than half of Breslov (y v1907 - 5903 Jewish residents of 10202), almost all were engaged in the commercial and industrial sector.Of the 15 industrial and commercial enterprises, most of them owned by Jews. One of the most successful entrepreneurs Breslov was Jacob (Yankel) Solitermann. The mill Solitermana actuated three water turbines and diesel engines operating about a dozen permanent jobs. In 1907 there were produced flour worth about 50 thousand rubles, in 1913 - 300 thousand rubles. Prominent businessman, known for his generous charity, Jacob Soliterman nevertheless, almost became a victim of a blood libel. It happened in the spring of 1912, when the police came into the hands of the parcel in his name. In package was a bottle of red liquid and a cover letter explaining that the Christian blood intended for use Bratslav Jewish community in the coming Passover. During the search, the police arranged Solitermana house was found a letter from the desktop, recently dismissed from the mill, threatening revenge former master. The investigation established that the working and became a popular performer in the years of provocation. On the eve of World War I in Bratslav lived more than 6,000 Jews, they contained a synagogue and six houses of worship.Amid the collapse of the empire and the collapse of the Russian army in the provincial town there was the first anti-Jewish pogrom. His staged in January 1918 soldiers stationed in Bratslav Kuban regiment. To protect against pogroms, Jews organized self-defense unit. Capturing Breslov local bandits in April 1919 marked the beginning of a continuous series of pogroms during the Civil War. Using lack of Red Army garrison sent to exemption from Gysin gang Ataman Volynets, peasants, incited by a priest and teacher, broke on May 7 in the city and had a bloody pogrom that lasted two days. Among many of his victims were members of families known in Bratslav Solitermanov, Averbakh and Uman. Only in the morning of the third day, local Believers expelled peasants from the town and took over his guard before returning Red Army. But July 13 Bratslav captured gang Ataman Liakhovich for several hours bandits killed more than a hundred Jews. Two days later, the city was captured by Ataman Falcon, and again accompanied by mayhem murders. Ataman, demanding great rabbi "indemnity", took hostage respected members of the community Kagan, X. Sexton, I. Cohen, B. and S. Leybeshkisa Zana, which after a series of bullying bandits killed. Bratslav August 17 ​​at the hands of members of the Tiutiunnik gang killed nine Jews. in August 1919 by the station in Bratslav Humenna burst gang composed of two thousand people with guns and 28 machine guns, and within a few hours to plunder the city and killed Jews and the Old Believers. After the pogrom was discovered more than 350 Jews killed and 60 Old Believers. exact number of victims of pogroms occurred in Bratslav during the Civil War, it is not. As noted later newspaper "Der Emes", from May 1919 to March 1921 14 Bratslav survived pogroms and, in fact, during this period was in a situation of "continuous pogrom." As a result, 600 children have been orphaned, 1,200 Jews were left without means of subsistence, 300 houses were destroyed. In 1923 the city's population of about 6000 inhabitants, including 2000 Jews. in 1921 -1922 years. Evobschestkom opened in Bratslav dispensary taken daily up to 50 people, "children's center" on 80 children, shelter care center for 20 children and a dining room for 100 people, and tried to support the Jewish Labor School 130 students. months before the war in estrus lived 1010 Jews (25% of the population). German and Romanian troops occupied Bratslav July 22, 1941, only a few managed to evacuate Jewish families.Since the beginning of the occupation in the town created a ghetto where Jews were placed just Bratslav district. According to the report of the Romanian Gendarmerie in late December 1941 was 747 Bratslav Jews. January 1, 1942 the majority of Jews were transferred to the concentration camp at Pecheri, about fifty occupants drowned in Southern Bug. In August 1942, despite the fact that Bratslav was in the Romanian occupation zone, there were two camps for workers German construction companies "Todt-Dorman" and "Horst und Jessen." In these camps, which occupied, respectively, of the school building on Lenin Street and Accounting College, was placed about 1200 Jews deported from Romania, and about 300 Ukrainian Jews.Jews used to work in the stone quarries and road construction. The work lasted a week from dawn to dusk, with one half-hour break for a meal. Regime in the camps was strict and the ultimate aim was the destruction of all prisoners. September 23, 1942 all trapped in these camps elderly and children (about 400 people) were shot in a nearby forest. Later shares inefficient destruction continued regularly. In aprele1943, the camp "Todt-Dorman 'was closed, the prisoners were transferred to the camp" Horst und Jessen. " With the release of Breslov in March 1944 in the city had about 200 local and twenty or tritsat Romanian Jews. At present (2012) in the town there is a small Jewish community Lukin," "100 Jewish towns in Ukraine" Detailed photo


"Cemetery located on the high hill above Bug river and Soliterman mill. Most old grave is dating by 1765 with subscription "Josef son of Aaron". Nathan Sternharz (Nathan of Breslov) was buried on this cemetery after his death at 1884. According to his will he was buried near the entrance to Jewish Cemetery and still there till our days. Ohel on the grave was renovated by Breslover Hasids in the beginning of 1990's. On cemetery locates big tombstone on grave of Soliterman's family members who were killed during pogrom in 1919 and monument to Holocaust victims who were killed in Pechora and Bratslov concentration camps (erected in 1995). Nathan of Breslov (January 22, 1780 - December 20, 1844), also known as Reb Noson, born Nathan Sternhartz, was the chief disciple and scribe of Rebbe Nachman of Breslov, founder of the Breslov Hasidic dynasty. Reb Noson is credited with preserving, promoting and expanding the Breslov movement after the Rebbe's death. Rebbe Nachman himself said, "Were it not for Reb Noson, not a page of my writings would have remained." Sternhartz, who came from a well-to-do and Misnagdic family, met Naḥman and became his disciple in 1802, after having made disappointing visits to various other Hasidic courts. In Naḥman he found a master with the combination of seriousness of spiritual purpose and understanding of human failings that addressed his own needs. Throughout his last years, Naḥman relied heavily on Sternhartz, especially as the editor of his teachings. Although Sternhartz represented himself as Naḥman's chief disciple, there is evidence that not all of Naḥman's other followers, including some of his earliest disciples, accepted his leading role. The same was true after Naḥman's early death. Sternhartz lived in Bratslav for most of the following 35 years and led the community from there; however, some of Naḥman's disciples stayed outside his sphere of influence. Sternhartz devoted himself fully to the task of publishing and disseminating Naḥman's teachings and biography, recording the latter in great detail and treating the account as a sacred narrative. Sternhartz also wrote his own memoirs (Yeme Moharnat), which were published many years after his death, in 1876" Source wotj [photos. [Mar 2014]

MASS GRAVES: Source wotj [photos. [Mar 2014]

Pechora Pits According to testimonies of former inmates of the Pechora camp, on an unknown date in the first half of 1942 (in the summer of 1942, according to a report of the Soviet Extraordinary Commission) a certain SS unit murdered a large number of camp inmates, consisting mostly of children and elderly people. After being separated from the able-bodied prisoners, the victims were told they were going to Tulchin to dig peat but instead were loaded onto trucks and taken to large pits near Pechora and either shot to death or thrown into the pits alive.

South Bug River: In the second half of 1941 a number of inmates of the Bratslav ghetto were taken by local auxiliary policemen to the bank of the South Bug River and shot there. The bodies were thrown into the river. It is unknown how many people were murdered in this way. On December 31, 1941 or January 1, 1942, during the deportation of the inmates of the Bratslav ghetto to the Pechora camp, about 20 Jews who had tried unsuccessfully to hide in Bratslav were caught. They were also murdered on the bank of the South Bug River and their bodies thrown into the icy water of the river. According to one testimony and to the report of the Soviet Extraordinary Commission, this murder took place in February 1942. At February 1942 in Bug River were drowned 250 Jewish orphans selected from Bratslav orphanage. Monument was erected on this site in 1990′s. At the same place were killed 50 Jews from Bratslav ghetto. In early 1942 three siblings with the last name Pekar were also shot near the bridge over the South Bug River and their bodies thrown into the river.

Marksovo Forest"" According to the report of the Soviet Extraordinary Commission for the Investigation of German Crimes, 8 Bratslav Jews, 2 men and 6 women, who in March 1942 were being taken from Bratslav to the Pechora camp were shot at the edge of the forest near the village of Marksovo, west of Bratslav, by Romanian gendarmes.

Marksovo Silage Pits: According to the report of the Soviet Extraordinary Commission for the Investigation of German Crimes, 4 Jews from Bratslav, three women and a child, were shot in April 1942 in silage pits outside Marksovo village, west of Bratslav, by Romanian gendarmes who were taking them to the Pechora camp.

Grinenki Forest: Apparently in the second half of 1942, about 10 or 18, according to various survivors' testimonies, or 6, according to German documents, young Jewish inmates of one of Bratslav's labor camps, mainly deportees from Bessarabia and Bukovina who had either tried to escape or engaged in resistance activities were murdered in the forest near the village of Grinenki, south of Bratslav.

Bratslav Camp: According to some testimonies of former inmates of the Bratslav labor camp and to German documents, a group of Jews who tried to escape the camp, apparently in the second half of 1942 or in early 1943, were shot in a pit they were forced to dig, either right outside the camp or inside the camp itself.

Raygorod: The inmates of Bratslav labor camps incapable of work, mostly elderly people or children, were taken in groups over time out of the camp and shot in large pits near the town of Raygorod, northeast of Bratslav. Thus, about 200 inmates, half of them children, were shot in June 1942. Another group of between 300 and 500 Jewish inmates was taken by truck on September 21, 1942 to the vicinity of Raygorod and either shot or thrown into pits alive. The massacre was perpetrated by the SS unit that was responsible for the Gaisin section of the Road 4 construction site. In January, August and, again, in late 1943 a total of about 400 more Jewish inmates of the Bratslav camp were murdered near Raygorod. The perpetrators of these massacres were apparently also members of the same SS unit.







Last Updated on Thursday, 14 January 2016 06:49
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